Several years ago I started writing a series of posts on plugins: how they are
designed and implemented in various systems and programming languages. In this,
I’ll extend the series by providing some examples of plugins in Go.
As a reminder, the original post
in this series identifies four fundamental plugin concepts, and claims that
nearly all plugin systems can be characterized and understood by mapping
their design to these concepts:
Application hooks to which plugins attach (aka. “mount points”)
Exposing application capabilities back to plugins (aka. extension API)
Two kinds of plugins
As in other statically compiled programming languages, in Go it’s common to talk
about two general kinds of plugins: compile-time plugins and run-time plugins.
We’ll cover both kinds here.
Compile-time plugins consist of code packages that get compiled into the
application’s main binary. Once the binary is built, its functionality is fixed.
The best known example of a compile-time plugin system in Go is drivers for the
database/sql package. I’ve written a whole post about this topic
– please read it!
To briefly recap: database drivers are packages that the main application
imports using a blank import _ “name”. These packages then use their
init functions to register with the database/sql package using
W.r.t. the fundamental plugin concepts, here is how compile-time plugins (and
database/sql as a concrete example) fare:
Discovery: very explicit, with an import of a plugin package. Plugins can
then perform registration automatically in their init function.
Registration: since the plugin is compiled into the main application, it’s
straightforward for it to invoke a registration function
(e.g. sql.Register) directly from the plugin.
Application hooks: Typically, a plugin will implement an interface the
application provides and the registration process will hook up the interface
implementation. With database/sql, a plugin will implement the
driver.Driver interface and a value implementing this interface will
be registered using sql.Register.
Exposing application capabilities back to plugins: with compile-time plugins
this is simple; since the plugin is compiled into the binary, it can
just import utility packages from the main application and use these in
its code as needed.
Run-time plugins consist of code that does not get compiled into the original
binary of the main application; instead, it hooks up to this application at
run-time. In compiled languages, a common tool to achieve this goal is shared
libraries, and Go supports this approach as well. The rest of this section will
provide an example of developing a plugin system in Go using shared libraries;
alternative approaches will be examined a bit later.
Go comes with a plugin package built into the standard library. This package
lets us write Go programs that get compiled into shared libraries instead of
into executable binaries; further, it provides simple functions for loading
shared libraries and getting symbols from them.
For this post, I’ve developed a complete example of a run-time plugin system; it
replicates the original htmlize example from the post on plugin
and its design is similar to the one in the followup post on Plugins in C. The example consists
of a simplistic program to convert some markup language (like reStructuredText or Markdown) to HTML, with
support for plugins that let us adjust the way certain markup elements are
processed. The full sample code for this post is available here.
Let’s examine this sample using the fundamental concepts of plugins.
Discovery and Registration: accomplished via file system lookup. The
main application has a plugin package with the LoadPlugins function.
This function scans a given directory for files ending with .so and treats
all such files as plugins. It expects to find a global function named
InitPlugin in each shared library, and invokes it providing it a
PluginManager (more on which later).
How did the plugins become .so files in the first place? By building them
with the -buildmode=plugin flag. Look at the buildplugins.sh script and
the README file in the code sample
for more details.
Application hooks: now is a good time to describe the PluginManager
type. This is the main type used for communicating between plugins and the main
application. The flow is as follows:
The application creates a new PluginManager in LoadPlugins, and passes
it to all the plugins it finds.
Each plugin uses the PluginManager to register its own handlers for
LoadPlugins returns the PluginManager to the main application after
all plugins have registered with it.
When the application runs, it uses PluginManager to invoke
plugin-registered hooks as needed.
As an example, PluginManager has this method:
Where RoleHook is a function type:
// should be replaced with.
type RoleHook func(string, *content.DB, *content.Post) string
Plugins can invoke RegisterRoleHook to register a handler for a specific
text role. Note that this design doesn’t actually use Go interfaces, but
alternative designs could do that; it all depends on the specifics of the
Exposing application capabilities back to plugins: as you can see in the
RoleHook type above, the application passes data objects to the plugin for
its use. content.DB provides access to the application database, and
content.Post provides the specific post the plugin is currently formatting.
The plugin can use these objects to obtain data or behavior from the
application, as needed.
Issues with shared library plugins in Go
Run-time plugins using shared libraries and the plugin package work well for
Go, as the previous section demonstrates. However, this approach also has some
serious downsides. The most important downside is that Go is very picky about
keeping the main application and the shared libraries it loads compatible.
As an experiment, make a small modification in one of the packages used by both
plugins and the main application, rebuild the main application and run it. Most
likely you’ll get this error:
The reason for this is that Go wants all the versions of all packages in the
main application and plugins to match exactly. It’s clear what motivates this:
Consider C and C++ as a counter-example. In these languages, an application can
load a shared library with dlopen and subsequently use dlsym to obtain
symbols from it. dlsym is extremely weakly typed; it takes a symbol name
and returns a void*. It’s up to the user to cast this to a concrete function
type. If the function type changes because of a version update, the result can
very likely be some sort of segmentation fault or even memory corruption.
Since Go relies on shared libraries from plugins, it has the same inherent
safety issues. It tries to protect programmers from shooting themselves in the
foot by ensuring that the application has been built with the same versions of
packages as all its plugins. This helps avoid mismatch. In addition, the version
of the Go compiler used to build the application and plugins must match exactly.
However, this protection comes with downsides – making developing plugins
somewhat cumbersome. Having to rebuild all plugins whenever any common packages
change – even in ways that don’t affect the plugin interface – is a heavy
burden. Especially considering that by their very nature plugins are typically
developed separately from the main application; they may live in separate
repositories, have separate release cadences etc.
Alternative approaches to run-time plugins
Given that the plugin package was only added to Go in version 1.8 and the limitation described previously, it’s
not surprising that the Go ecosystem saw the emergence of alternative plugin
One of the most interesting directions, IMHO, involves plugins via RPC. I’ve
always been a fan of decoupling an application into separate processes
communicating via RPC or just TCP on localhost (I guess they
call this microservices these days), since it has several important upsides:
Isolation: crash in a plugin does not bring the whole application down.
Interoperability between languages: if RPC is the interface, do you care what
language the plugin is written in?
Distribution: if plugins interface via the network, we can easily distribute
them to run on different machines for gains in performance, reliability, and
Moreover, Go makes this particularly easy by having a fairly capable RPC package
right in the standard library: net/rpc.
One of the most widely used RPC-based plugin systems is hashicorp/go-plugin. Hashicorp is well known for creating
great Go software, and apparently they use go-plugin for many of their
systems, so it’s battle-tested (though its documentation could be better!)
go-plugin runs on top of net/rpc but also supports gRPC. Advanced RPC
protocols like gRPC are well suitable for plugins because they include
versioning out-of-the-box, tackling the difficult interoperability problem
between different versions of plugins vs. the main application.