REST Servers in Go: Part 2 – using a router package

This is the second post in a series about writing REST servers in Go. Here is a
list of posts in the series:

Part 1 – standard library
Part 2 – using a router package (this post)
Part 3 – using a web framework
Part 4 – using OpenAPI and Swagger
Part 5 – middleware
Part 6 – authentication
Part 7 – GraphQL

Where we left off in Part 1

Part 1 concluded with a version of our Go server where we’ve
refactored JSON rendering into a helper function, making specific route handlers
fairly concise.

The remaining issue we had is the path routing logic, which is scattered across
several places.

This is a problem all folks who write no-dependency HTTP servers run into.
Unless the server is very minimal w.r.t. the routes it has (e.g. some
specialized servers only have one or two routes they handle), the verbosity and
difficulty of organizing the router code is something experienced programmers
notice very quickly.

Advanced routing

The first instinct is to abstract the routing away, perhaps with a set of
functions or a data type with methods. There are many interesting ad-hoc ways
to do this, and many powerful and well-used 3rd party router packages in the Go
ecosystem which do it for you. I strongly recommend reviewing this post by
Ben Hoyt
, in which he compares and
contrasts several approaches (ad-hoc and 3rd party) for a simple set of routes.

Let’s revisit our server’s REST API for a concrete example:

POST /task/ : create a task, returns ID
GET /task/<taskid> : returns a single task by ID
GET /task/ : returns all tasks
DELETE /task/<taskid> : delete a task by ID
GET /tag/<tagname> : returns list of tasks with this tag
GET /due/<yy>/<mm>/<dd> : returns list of tasks due by this date

There are several things we could do to make routing more ergonomic:

Add a way to set separate handlers for different methods on the same route.
E.g. POST for /task/ should go to one handler, GET /task/ into
another, etc.
Add a way to have “deeper” matches; e.g. we should be able to say that
/task/ goes to one handler, while /task/<taskid> for a numeric ID
goes into another.
While we’re at it, the matcher should just extract the numeric ID from
/task/<taskid> and pass it into the handler in some convenient way.

Writing a custom router in Go is very simple, due to the composable nature of
HTTP handlers. For this series of posts, I’ll resist the temptation. Instead,
let’s see how all of this is handled by one of the most popular 3rd party
routers – gorilla/mux.

Task server with gorilla/mux

gorilla/mux is one of the oldest of the popular Go HTTP routers; according
to the docs, the name mux stands
for “HTTP request multiplexer” (the same meaning it has in the standard
library).

Because it’s a package with a narrow, focused goal, its usage is fairly
straightforward. A version of our task server that uses gorilla/mux for
routing is available here.
Here’s how the routes are defined:

router := mux.NewRouter()
router.StrictSlash(true)
server := NewTaskServer()

router.HandleFunc(“/task/”, server.createTaskHandler).Methods(“POST”)
router.HandleFunc(“/task/”, server.getAllTasksHandler).Methods(“GET”)
router.HandleFunc(“/task/”, server.deleteAllTasksHandler).Methods(“DELETE”)
router.HandleFunc(“/task/{id:[0-9]+}/”, server.getTaskHandler).Methods(“GET”)
router.HandleFunc(“/task/{id:[0-9]+}/”, server.deleteTaskHandler).Methods(“DELETE”)
router.HandleFunc(“/tag/{tag}/”, server.tagHandler).Methods(“GET”)
router.HandleFunc(“/due/{year:[0-9]+}/{month:[0-9]+}/{day:[0-9]+}/”, server.dueHandler).Methods(“GET”)

Note how these definitions immediately address points (1) and (2) in the
“ergonomics wishlist” outlined above. By tacking a Methods call onto a
route, we can easily direct different methods on the same path to different
handlers. Pattern matching (using regexp syntax) in the path lets us easily
distinguish between /task/ and /task/<taskid> in the top-level route
definition.

To see how point (3) is addressed, let’s take a look at getTaskHandler:

func (ts *taskServer) getTaskHandler(w http.ResponseWriter, req *http.Request) {
log.Printf(“handling get task at %sn”, req.URL.Path)

// Here and elsewhere, not checking error of Atoi because the router only
// matches the [0-9]+ regex.
id, _ := strconv.Atoi(mux.Vars(req)[“id”])
ts.Lock()
task, err := ts.store.GetTask(id)
ts.Unlock()

if err != nil {
http.Error(w, err.Error(), http.StatusNotFound)
return
}

renderJSON(w, task)
}

In the route definition, the route /task/{id:[0-9]+}/ defines the regexp to
parse a path, but also assigns the identifier part to “id”. This “variable” can
be accessed by calling mux.Vars on the request [1].

Comparing the approaches

Here is the code-reading path one must take in order to understand how the GET
/task/<taskid> route is handled in our original server:

Whereas this is the path when using gorilla/mux:

In addition to having fewer hoops to jump through, it’s also significantly less
code to read. IMHO this is very good from a code readability point of view.
The path definitions using gorilla/mux are short and straightforward, and
don’t involve much magic; it’s pretty clear how this works. An additional
advantage is that we can now easily see all the routes in a single glance in a
single place. In fact, the route configuration code now looks very similar to
our informal REST API definition.

I like using packages like gorilla/mux, because they are a precision tool.
They do one thing and they do it well, and they don’t “infect” the whole program
in a way that makes them hard to remove or replace later on. If you examine the
code of the server for this part,
you’ll note that the parts using gorilla/mux are confined to relatively few
lines of code. If we find a fatal limitation in this package later on in the
lifecycle of the project, replacing it with another router (or a hand-rolled
version) should be fairly straightforward.

[1]
It’s stored by gorilla/mux in the context of each request,
and mux.Vars is a convenience function to fetch it from there.

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